News on Retrofit and Air Quality in Europe
Ricardo tests Real-World Emissions of Retrofitted Euro III Bus
On 27 November 2014 Ricardo released further results of their study of the Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach company fleet in the UK.
As part of a research project examining the real-world emissions of buses operating through a known pollution hot spot in Brighton city centre, Ricardo published results in July 2014 demonstrating the important role that improving traffic flow can have upon reducing NOx emissions. The study focused on a range of buses including Euro IV, Euro V conventional and Euro V hybrid powered vehicles.
As a follow-up to this work, Ricardo has since carried out measurements on an older Euro III bus recently retrofitted with a Selective Catalytic Reduction and continuously regenerating particulate trap system. Testing of the retrofitted vehicle was carried out on the same route (No.7) as used as the basis of the previous study.
Emissions results of the Euro III retrofitted bus were substantially below those of all of the other buses tested, including the Euro V hybrid vehicle. Data also indicated that of the nitrogen oxides remaining in the exhaust, the NO2 fraction was substantially lowered to below 10% of total NOx, Ricardo said. Significantly from an operational standpoint, however, the retrofitted aftertreatment system required a longer period of warm-up before its full emissions control functionality could be achieved (typically 5-10 minutes from cold start).
More info: http://www.ricardo.com/News--Media/Press-releases/News-releases1/2014/Euro-III-buses-can-be-cleaner-than-Euro-V-hybrids-if-retrofitted-with-new-aftertreatment
Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures in Reducing Future Primary Particulate Matter Emissions from On-Road Vehicle Exhaust
Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures in Reducing Future Primary Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions from On-Road Vehicle Exhaust, Fang Yan, Tami C. Bond, David G. Streets; Environ. Sci. Technol. (in press), doi: 10.1021/es503197f.
“This work evaluates the effectiveness of on-road primary particulate matter emission reductions that can be achieved by long-term vehicle scrappage and retrofit measures on regional and global levels… The greatest global emission reductions from a scrappage program occur 5 to 10 years after its introduction and can reach as much as 70%. The greatest reductions with retrofit occur around 2030 and range from 16-31%... Scrappage and retrofit reduce global emissions by 31-60% and 15-31%, respectively, within 95% confidence intervals, under a mid-range scenario in the year 2030.”
More info: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es503197f
DUH wins Legal Dispute on Clean Air in Reutlingen, Germany
As a consequence of a legal action launched by the environmental and consumer protection association Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) in January 2012, the Administrative Court of Sigmaringen, Germany decided that the air quality plan for the city of Reutlingen has to be updated with measures to meet the NO2 and PM10 limit values as soon as possible.
In 2013 the annual mean for NO2 measured at the monitoring station Lederstraße Ost was 72 μg/m³, clearly exceeding the limit value of 40 μg/m³. The daily limit value for PM10 of 50 μg/m³ was exceeded at this station on 79 days in 2013. That is more than a double of the allowed number of exceedance days.
The current third update of the air quality plan in Reutlingen comprises an expansion of the Low Emission Zone (LEZ) over the whole city including federal roads starting from 1 January 2015. However the prediction of the Regional Council shows, that compliance with limits for NO2 and PM10 will not be achieved, despite the enlarged LEZ.
DUH suggested the implementation of further measures such as the retrofitting of buses with NO2-reduction systems and particle filters, the obligatory use of construction machines and equipment with particle filter, the replacement of the taxi fleet with vehicles that correspond with the requirements of the ADAC Eco Label, the promotion of public transport and cycling and an effective transport management.
Machine and Vehicles Emissions Standards on German Construction Sites
The German Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy notified the European Commission of its intention to add environmental protection requirement to the existing Tendering and Environment Administrative Regulation (VwVBU) that has been in place since 1 January 2013 and ensures environmentally friendly procurement with appropriate environmental criteria for products and services.
For construction works, it is envisaged to ban the use of diesel-powered equipment with an engine between 37 and 560 kW that meet emissions requirements below Stage IIIB. Equipment using a diesel engine between 19 and 37 kW will have to be certified at least to Stage IIIA. And on-road construction equipment will have to meet the Euro IV standard or higher. Any equipment or vehicles that are older will have to be retrofitted with a particle reduction system, as will construction equipment fitted with a constant speed engine of more than 18 kW.
Retrofit DPF must be approved according to one of the following existing standards: Class PMK 2 or higher as defined in Annex XXVII to the Traffic Approval Regulation (StVZO), UN REC Directive Class 1 or 2, reduction class 01, quality mark of the FAD, quality seal of the VERT Association, or conformance to the Swiss regulation.
French Order on Retrofit Devices amended for NO2
An amendment to the French Order on retrofit devices for M and N category vehicles was published on 6 September 2014. It adds a limit on the acceptable NO2 increase in the exhaust.
The original Order was published on 15 May 2013. With this amendment, the maximum increase in the share of NO2 in NOx is 30 percentage points above the NO2 share before retrofitting (e.g. if the original NO2/NOx ratio in the exhaust is 10%, it can be increased up to maximum 40% when the retrofit device is installed).
UN Regulation on Retrofit Devices published
On 25 June 2014 the new UN Regulation concerning the approval of Retrofit Emission Control devices (REC) for heavy-duty, agricultural and forestry tractors, and non-road mobile machinery equipped with compression ignition engines was published as UN Regulation No 132.
A series of amendment to this Regulation, introducing more stringent requirements on the level of emissions reduction, will be published in the next months.
More info: http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs/updates/R132e.pdf
ERECA hosts Discussion in European Parliament on Clean Air for Europe
ERECA, the alliance of European retrofitters, and MEP Dr Liese co-organised a discussion in the European Parliament on 20 June 2013 and about 60 participants joined this event.
A keynote speech was given by Thomas Verheye, Head of Unit in DG Environment He informed participants that the Impact Assessment on the revision of the Thematic Strategy for Air Pollution has been submitted to the Board and a decision is expected on 3 July 2013. It can be expected that the NEC directive will be reviewed in 2013 but the Air Quality Directive revision may be postponed because of on-going infringements from Member States. Mike Galey (Eminox) then briefly introduced ERECA, the alliance of 3 retrofit companies: HJS, Dinex, and Eminox. He underlined that retrofit offers a solution for today without having to wait for fleet renewal. Michael Himmen (HJS) then spoke of the affordability of retrofit and commented that there are still in Europe 340 000 buses that are not equipped with a DPF and 250 000 buses not equipped with any DeNOx system.
This was then followed by speeches on best practice examples for clean air in cities, given by representatives of London’s EU Office and the Berlin and Madrid’s transport organisations. DG-REGIO spoke on how European structural and cohesion funds might be used for retrofit. The session concluded with a discussion on the challenges and areas for action.
French Order on Retrofits published
On 7 June 2013 the French Order on Retrofits (Arrêté du 15 mai 2013 visant les conditions d'installation et de réception des dispositifs de post-équipement permettant de réduire les émissions de polluants des véhicules en service) was published in the Official Journal of France.
The Order defines emissions requirements for the retrofit of Euro II, III, and IV base engines up to Euro III, IV, V, or EEV levels. In addition, retrofits to Euro III and IV levels require a minimum performance of 50% on PM and/or NOx reduction. Retrofits to Euro V and EEV require also a PM reduction >90% and/or NOx reduction >70%, according to the type of retrofit device installed. These efficiencies are to be measured on the European Transient Cycle (ETC).
The Order also includes requirements on NO2 emissions. When the base engine NO2 emissions measured on the ETC exceed 0.8 g/kWh, the retrofit device should not increase this level. Otherwise, an NO2 limit of 0.8 g/kWh applies after retrofitting. Also ammonia emissions, in the case of a DeNOx retrofit, need to comply with maximum levels allowed in appropriate Euro legislation.
More info: http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000027513723