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News on Retrofit and Air Quality in Europe

UN Regulation on Retrofit Devices published
25/06/2014

On 25 June 2014 the new UN Regulation concerning the approval of Retrofit Emission Control devices (REC) for heavy-duty, agricultural and forestry tractors, and non-road mobile machinery equipped with compression ignition engines was published as UN Regulation No 132.

A series of amendment to this Regulation, introducing more stringent requirements on the level of emissions reduction, will be published in the next months.

More info: http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs/updates/R132e.pdf


ERECA hosts Discussion in European Parliament on Clean Air for Europe
08/07/2013

ERECA, the alliance of European retrofitters, and MEP Dr Liese co-organised a discussion in the European Parliament on 20 June 2013 and about 60 participants joined this event.

A keynote speech was given by Thomas Verheye, Head of Unit in DG Environment He informed participants that the Impact Assessment on the revision of the Thematic Strategy for Air Pollution has been submitted to the Board and a decision is expected on 3 July 2013. It can be expected that the NEC directive will be reviewed in 2013 but the Air Quality Directive revision may be postponed because of on-going infringements from Member States. Mike Galey (Eminox) then briefly introduced ERECA, the alliance of 3 retrofit companies: HJS, Dinex, and Eminox. He underlined that retrofit offers a solution for today without having to wait for fleet renewal. Michael Himmen (HJS) then spoke of the affordability of retrofit and commented that there are still in Europe 340 000 buses that are not equipped with a DPF and 250 000 buses not equipped with any DeNOx system.
This was then followed by speeches on best practice examples for clean air in cities, given by representatives of London’s EU Office and the Berlin and Madrid’s transport organisations. DG-REGIO spoke on how European structural and cohesion funds might be used for retrofit. The session concluded with a discussion on the challenges and areas for action.

French Order on Retrofits published
17/06/2013

On 7 June 2013 the French Order on Retrofits (Arrêté du 15 mai 2013 visant les conditions d'installation et de réception des dispositifs de post-équipement permettant de réduire les émissions de polluants des véhicules en service) was published in the Official Journal of France.

The Order defines emissions requirements for the retrofit of Euro II, III, and IV base engines up to Euro III, IV, V, or EEV levels. In addition, retrofits to Euro III and IV levels require a minimum performance of 50% on PM and/or NOx reduction. Retrofits to Euro V and EEV require also a PM reduction >90% and/or NOx reduction >70%, according to the type of retrofit device installed. These efficiencies are to be measured on the European Transient Cycle (ETC).

The Order also includes requirements on NO2 emissions. When the base engine NO2 emissions measured on the ETC exceed 0.8 g/kWh, the retrofit device should not increase this level. Otherwise, an NO2 limit of 0.8 g/kWh applies after retrofitting. Also ammonia emissions, in the case of a DeNOx retrofit, need to comply with maximum levels allowed in appropriate Euro legislation.

More info: http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000027513723


Adoption of the REC Regulation by the UN Working Party on Pollution and Energy (GRPE)
07/06/2013

The UNECE’s Working Party on Pollution and Energy (GRPE) meeting was held on 6 & 7 June 2013 in Geneva. The Regulation on Retrofit Emissions Control Systems (REC) for Heavy-duty and NRMM applications was adopted and will be sent to the November 2013 meeting of WP.29 for adoption.

The regulation provides for four classes of REC:

  • Class I for PM control with no increase in NO2;
  • Class II for PM control with max. 30% increase in NO2 compared to engine-out;
  • Class III for NOx control and
  • Class IV for combined PM and NOx control.

The retrofitted engine system must meet at least the next more stringent emissions stage and, in this first version of the Regulation, at least a 50% reduction in PM and/or a 60% reduction in NOx, as appropriate for the class of REC.


London Mayor proposes 'Ultra-Low Emission Zone'
22/02/2013

The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, has outlined his proposal for an ‘Ultra-Low Emission Zone’ to improve air quality. If the plan proceeds, only zero-and ‘low-emission’ vehicles would be allowed in the central London zone during working hours by 2020.
City Hall said the mayor recognised that more work was required on the proposal and believes it would act as a challenge for vehicle manufacturers to ensure more affordable low-emission technologies were in place. The mayor plans to introduce 1600 hybrid buses by 2016 and has also asked his team to look into designs for electric taxis.
However, the mayor also announced that Phase 5 of the current London-wide Low Emission Zone will now only apply to Transport for London (TfL) buses. Phase 5 had been planned to require all lorries, buses and coaches to meet Euro IV NOx levels from 2015, in addition to the current (Phase 4) requirement to meet Euro IV PM levels.


Czech Government approves Regulation on Low Emission Zones
08/02/2013

On 6 February 2013 the Czech government approved rules for the introduction of Low-Emission Zones that will allow municipalities to ban high-emission vehicles from entry within a year.

Environment Minister Tomáš Chalupa said that the rules give municipalities the power to define the size of the zones and how strict the entry conditions will be, meaning what emissions category the vehicles entering the zone must fulfil. The municipalities will also be able to grant exceptions, Chalupa said.
The government decree introduces four emissions categories for vehicles with diesel engines, two for cars with petrol engines, and three for motorcycles.
Electric vehicles and fuel-cell cars are automatically ranked in the highest category. The system of registration and the form of the respective emission stickers, to cost 80 Koruna (€3.12), will be uniform for all municipalities.
The scheme is based on the German model. The Ministry says that discussions with Germany on mutual recognition of the stickers are being undertaken. Compared to the draft regulation presented in September 2012, which was submitted to an inter-departmental comment procedure, advantages for particulate filters in the allocation of emissions stickers have been removed pending the discussions with Germany. It is reported that this is because the Czech system for approval of particulate filters is in certain points more permissive than the German system.

French Order on Retrofits with NO2 Limit
19/09/2012

On 19 September 2012, the French Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable Development, and Energy notified the European Commission of a new draft Order establishing installation and certification conditions for retrofit devices to reduce emissions of pollutants (NOx and/or particles) of compression-ignition engines of in use vehicles.
This Order implements the provisions of the decree of 3 May 2012 establishing the vehicles classification for Low Emissions Zones (see AECC News Vol 17 No 10). It is largely based on procedures being developed by the Geneva UNECE REC working group and will be replaced by the international Regulation when it is formally adopted in Geneva.
The Order covers existing vehicles of categories M2, M3, N2 and N3, and also vehicles of categories M1 and N1. It provides emissions requirements for the retrofit of Euro II, III, and IV base engines up to Euro III, IV, V, or EEV. In addition, retrofit to Euro III and IV levels require a minimum performance of 50% on PM and/or NOx reduction. Retrofits to Euro V and EEV require also a PM reduction >90% and/or NOx reduction >70%, according to the type of retrofit device installed. These efficiencies are to be measured on the ETC cycle.
The Order also introduces requirements on NO2 emissions. When the base engine NO2 emissions measured on ETC exceed 0.8 g/kWh, the retrofit device should not increase this level. Otherwise, an NO2 limit of 0.8 g/kWh applies after retrofitting.
Also ammonia emissions, in the case of a DeNOx retrofit, need to comply with maximum levels allowed in appropriate Euro legislations.


Czech Order on Classification of Vehicles for Low Emission Zones
04/06/2012

The Czech Republic has notified the European Commission of a new government order laying down the rules for Low Emission Zones (LEZ).
The order, in connection with provisions of the draft Act on air protection, governs the classification of motor vehicles into emissions categories identified in the Act, establishes technical specifications for the appearance of emission stickers including anti-forgery elements, their graphical appearance, rules for labelling of vehicles with emission stickers and details of their distribution and pricing.
Individual emission categories 1–4 are specified based on the type of Euro emissions limit values that the given vehicle meets. Vehicles in category 1 will not get a sticker. Stickers for category 2 will have a red background, category 3 yellow and category 4 green. Municipalities will have to specify in a municipal by-law which vehicle emissions categories may enter the Low-Emission Zone. Emission stickers will be universally valid within the entire Czech Republic, and will specify a vehicle’s emission category for assessment of whether conditions have been met for entry of the vehicle to any municipality that has declared an LEZ.

 
Emission limit values
First registration of M1 or N1 vehicles
First registration of M2, M3, N2 or N3 vehicles
Diesel vehicles
Emission category 1
Vehicles meeting Euro 1 or earlier emissions limits.
before 1  January 1997
Before 1 October 1996
Emission category 2
Vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions limits, or Euro 1 plus installed of a DPF.
from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2000
from 1October 1996 to 30 September 2001
Emission category 3
Vehicles meeting Euro 3 emissions limits, or Euro 2 plus installation of a DPF.
from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2005
from 1 October 2001 to 30 September 2006
Emission category 4
Vehicles meeting Euro 4 emissions limits, or Euro 3 plus installation of a DPF.
from 1 January 2006
from 1 October 2006
Vehicles with SI engines
Emission category 1
Vehicles not meeting any Euro emissions limits.
Before 1 January 1993
Before 1 January 1993
Emission category 4
Vehicles meeting  Euro 1 emissions limits and better
From 1 January 1993

All category M and N vehicles with electric or hybrid propulsion, fuelled by LPG or CNG or biogas, or intended for fuelling with E85 are classed as emissions category 4.
Category L vehicles (motorcycles, etc.) with first registration prior to 1 January 1993 are classified into emission category 1, and those with first registration starting 1 January 1993 are classified into emission category 4.

More info: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/tris/pisa/app/search/index.cfm?fuseaction=pisa_notif_overview&iYear=2012&inum=334&lang=EN&sNLang=EN


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