Actualités sur le rétrofit et la qualité de l’air en Europe
Dutch Covenant on Environmental Zones for Lorries
End of June 2008, the municipalities of Leiden, Rijswijk and Amsterdam signed the covenant ‘Stimulering schone vrachtauto’s en milieuzonering’ (Stimulating cleaner lorries and environmental zones). The key element of the agreement is that only lorries equipped with a soot filter or a clean (Euro IV) engine will be admitted to the inner cities. The Ministers of VROM (Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment) and of Verkeer en Waterstaat (Transport, Public Works and Water Management) as well as the transport organizations TLN, EVO and KNV, the Association of Netherlands Municipalities (VNG) and ten municipalities had already signed the covenant in March 2006. Representatives of twenty cities have now signed the environment document and eight of these municipalities have introduced environmental zones. Alderman Vos of Amsterdam said his city will do so on 1 October of this year. Leiden will introduce an environmental zone on 1 January 2009.
In environmental zones, the following requirements apply to lorries:
- Euro 0 or I lorries are not admitted;
- Euro II or III lorries are only admitted if they are equipped with a certified soot filter, which must be installed within 5 months after this is available;
- Lorries which are able to demonstrate they comply at least with the Euro IV standard are allowed;
Campaign for Clean Air for London wants 'more ambitious' LEZs
- As of 1 January 2010, lorries will have to comply with minimum the Euro IV standard.
In an article in ‘The Independent’ Newspaper, Simon Birkett of the Campaign for Clean Air in London calls for the new EU Air Quality Directive to be translated into actions. These should, he says, include road pricing, more ambitious Low Emissions Zones, and operation of congestion charging 7 days per week. Birkett says “the Government has spent 10 years in denial about the UK's air-quality problems… action is long overdue.” The Government has, he says, admitted that road transport is the cause of all breaches of air quality laws in the UK. So “we need to target the most polluted areas with technology based solutions and a ‘tipping point’ of behavioural change”. The article comments that vehicles produce less than half as much air pollution once their speed reaches 30kph. It notes that the average annual concentrations of NO2 in Marylebone Road, King's Road and Brompton Road in central London were 102, 91 and 94μg/m3 respectively, compared to the WHO guideline of a maximum average annual concentration of 40μg/m3.
Developments on Low Emissions Zones in Switzerland
Following a meeting with the Environment Ministers of Germany, Austria and Liechtenstein, the Swiss Federal Environment Minister has issued a statement supporting the setting up in Switzerland of LEZs based on the German model. Two ordinances will require modification to enable vehicle licensing and signalisation. The Federal Roads Administration will be in charge and there will shortly be a meeting between them and the Environment Ministry. Last year there was a motion from the Swiss Parliament on the subject of Low Emissions Zones (LEZs) as a result of which the Federal Council was asked to create the legal basis for setting up LEZs. However, at the time the Council rejected the proposal because of the administrative effort needed, but said they believe there are already sufficient instruments available.
EU Air Quality Directive published
The revised EU Directive on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe has been published in the official Journal as Directive 2008/50/EC. Member States must now transpose the Directive into national law by 11 June 2010. The Commission has also to finalise the implementing measures by amending some annexes to the Directive, but these amendments cannot affect limit values, targets or thresholds, or dates.
Dutch Retrofit Subsidy reaches Ceiling for Heaviest Vehicles
The new Directive sets requirements for the assessment of air quality in Member States with regard to NO2 and NOx, PM10 and PM2.5, ozone, benzene, lead, CO and SO2. It defines that Member States must “take all necessary measures not entailing disproportionate costs” to reduce exposure to meet the air quality target values and long-term objectives, but allows Member States to postpone the deadlines for NO2, benzene or PM10 in a particular area for a maximum of 5 years providing they establish an air quality plan supported by information to show how they will ensure conformity.
The Directive sets limit and target values including an 8-hour mean of 120μg/m3 for ozone by 1/1/2010; a 1-hour limit of 200μg/m3 for NO2 and an annual limit of 40μg/m3 by 1/1/2010; confirmation of the existing PM10 daily limit of 50μg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 35 times per year and annual limit of 40μg/m3; and a new PM2.5 annual target value of 25μg/m3 by 1/1/2010, to become a limit value from 1/1/2015 (subject to review in 2013) with an indicative target of 20μg/m3 from 1/1/2020.
The Dutch subsidy scheme for retrofitting soot filters has reached its ceiling of 1000 vehicles for the heaviest power category.
The Subsidy Regulation for Retrofit Trucks and Buses (SRV), which has a total budget of €34 million, set a limit of up to 1000 vehicles with a power capacity over 225kW in 2008. At 7 February 2008, 1000 vehicles in this heaviest power category have already been equipped with a retrofit soot filter. As a result, vehicles with a power capacity over 225kW are no longer entitled to a subsidy.
EEA Report on Environmental Success Stories for Road Transport
Trucks and buses below 225kW can, however, still apply for a subsidy for retrofitting a soot filter in 2008.
A new report from the European Environment Agency (EEA) reviews 'Success stories within the road transport sector on reducing greenhouse gas emission and producing ancillary benefits'. EEA Technical report No 2/2008 explores six projects - implemented in the Netherlands, the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom - that have helped to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and therefore contribute to the EU's medium and long-term targets on climate change. These projects have also helped improve air quality and reduce noise. The projects reviewed are speed control in Rotterdam, the London Congestion charging zone, an Environmental zone in Prague, a Freight Construction Consolidation Centre in London and teleconferencing (ICT) in the United Kingdom.
The full report is available as a free download.
More info: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/technical_report_2008_2/en/Success-stories-Tech_2_2008_final.pdf
Greece plans Low Emissions Zones, Incentives and Revised Vehicle Taxes
The Environment Minister of Greece, George Souflias, has presented a 'National Plan for Combatting Air Pollution', outlining a series of measures providing financial and other incentives, as well as the introduction of a "green zone" with restricted access to vehicles.
Glasgow plans Low Emissions Zone and Retrofits
The measures include financial incentives for withdrawing non-catalyst vehicles, changes to current road taxes to incorporate environmental criteria and allowing local authorities to impose tolls for entry into central areas within their boundaries, as well as measures for encouraging industry not to pollute and for central heating systems.
Souflias said that the financial incentives for renewing Greece's fleet of cars were an issue to be decided by the Finance Ministry based on the country's financial capacity, while the rest of the measures announced could begin to be implemented between 2009 and 2010 after consultation with the various bodies involved.
The new road tax system would replace the current one based on the size of engine by four 'classes' based on the amount of emissions produced, so that vehicles with no or low emissions would not have to pay road tax. The next three categories (medium, high and very high emissions vehicles) will pay increasing amounts and receive colour-coded tax disks to display on their vehicles. The 'Green zone' measure will allow local authorities to prevent certain categories of vehicles from entering their central areas, based on how polluting they are. A similar measure is also being considered for Athens.
Specifically, the minister said the measure would allow cars equipped with catalytic converters and the medium and high-polluting vehicles to continue entering central Athens on alternate days as at present, using the 'odd and even' system. Entry will be barred to the very high pollution vehicles and old-technology vehicles, which will only have access on the weekends. Low-emissions vehicles, by contrast, will have free access at all times.
Souflias said that in urban areas, the main source of pollution was emissions from vehicles. He stressed the need to renew Greece's fleet of vehicles, noting that the average age of heavy vehicles was more than 17 years. In the EU, by contrast, the average age of these types of vehicles 12 years.
Glasgow, Scotland’s largest city, is to publish a draft plan to improve air quality in the city. It could see Low Emissions Zones (LEZ) introduced to parts of the city centre. The proposals include reducing emissions from the Council’s own vehicle fleet by using vehicles with Euro IV or Euro V engines and by taking delivery of a fleet of Volkswagen Bluemotion vehicles “capable of 75mpg [miles per gallon] and with the lowest emission levels in its class.” Other proposals include reducing dust and smoke from construction sites, and tree planting to help reduce ambient PM10 levels.
The draft Action Plan notes that bus services in the city are operated by a number of different companies using vehicles of varying types and Euro emission categories. The overall contribution to road traffic emission NO2 and PM10 levels within the city’s Air Quality Management Areas from buses will be significant. Recent legislation has allowed Traffic Commissioners to regulate the emission levels of vehicles used in local bus services and as part of the development of a bus Quality Partnership Scheme, Glasgow City Council will investigate the use of this regulation to control bus emissions as a condition of operator licenses.
Following discussion of the Draft Air Quality Action Plan by Glasgow City Council it is expected that the proposals will go out to public consultation. The plan document notes that predicted future levels of NO2 in 2010 based on monitoring results and a “do nothing” scenario show exceedences of the 40μg/m3 annual objective, with figures of up to 60μg/m3 predicted. PM10 levels meet the current objective level of 40μg/m3, but this is to be lowered to 18μg/m3 in 2010. Predicted levels in the city centre are expected to exceed the new objective, with figures ranging from 20 to 35μg/m3.
Summer 2007 Ozone Levels lowest in a Decade
High concentrations of ozone in Europe were lower during the summer of 2007 than any other year in the past decade, according to the latest data unveiled by the European Environment Agency's technical report 'Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2007'. In contrast to the same season in 2006, the threshold of 180μg/m³ was not exceeded in northern Europe.
The highest one-hour ozone concentration of 479μg/m³ was observed in Sicily, Italy, followed by 363μg/m³ in Romania. France, Greece, Italy and Romania also reported high hourly ozone concentrations at least six times last summer.
Compared to the long-term objective of protecting human health (maximum ozone concentration of 120μg/m³ over 8 hours), data for 2007 show that the thresholds set by the Directive 2002/3/EC were generally surpassed across Europe. This Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air aims to:
• establish common methods and criteria for assessing concentrations of ozone in ambient air,
• set long-term objectives, target values for 2010, an alert threshold and an information threshold for concentrations of ozone in ambient air in the Community,
• ensure that adequate information is obtained on ambient levels of ozone and that it is made available to the public,
• maintain or improve ambient air quality,
• promote increased cooperation between the Member States in reducing ozone levels.
45% of the total number of exceedances of the information threshold, 39% of exceedances of the alert threshold and 12% of exceedances of the long-term objective were observed during a single episode from 14-21 July 2007.
The report is available here.
More info: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/technical_report_2008_5/en
UK Plans for delaying Compliance with EU Air Quality Law across London
The Sunday Times reported recently that the UK government has decided to sacrifice air quality standards across London in order to allow an extra 60000 flights per year into Heathrow. Ministers are planning to ask the European Commission for a special deal to exempt the capital from official limits on exposure to air pollutants.
Council agrees Air Quality Directive
MPs representing constituencies under the Heathrow flight path accused the government of "an enormous betrayal" for allegedly breaking a promise to block Heathrow expansion unless air quality standards were met. They noted that allowing flights to land and take off on the same runway at Heathrow as early as 2010 could lead to an extra 60000 flights per year. The extra passenger volumes will also generate additional traffic to and from the airport. A third runway would generate a further increase in flight numbers and emissions.
The European Union air quality directive, which comes into force next month, would require the UK to meet limits on NO2 by 2010, in line with World Health Organisation standards.
The Government's plans to secure a waiver from the rules was disclosed in a presentation given to a conference on air quality earlier this month by an official at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). The civil servant from the department's air quality unit disclosed that the government is drawing up plans to ask Brussels for formal permission to delay compliance with Europe-wide air quality rules. An environment department spokesman confirmed that the government was expected to apply for a five-year exemption for NO2 emissions and 1 year for PM10.
The EU Council of Ministers formally approved a revised EU Air Quality Directive on 14 April 2008, following the compromise agreed with European Parliament last year and the acceptance by the Commission of the Parliament’s second reading amendments.
Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas welcomed the move and said that the EU had taken a "decisive step in tackling a major cause of environmental and health problems" by providing "ambitious but realistic" standards for fine particle pollution. The Directive will be published in the Official Journal in May, the Commission said. The directive must be transposed into national law by May 2010. Limits for PM2.5 and other pollutants will be reviewed by 2013.
The Directive introduces limits on ambient levels of PM2.5 to be met by 2015. It sets a cap of 25μg/m3 at national level and an average exposure level of 20μg/m3 for urban areas. Exposure levels in these areas must be reduced by 20% by 2020 relative to 2010 data. The revised directive also gives member states greater flexibility in complying with certain existing air quality standards. EU states are allowed to postpone implementation of concentration limits until mid-2011 for PM10 and until 2015 for NO2.
Belgian Institute Reports on Car Mobility and Fine Particle Pollution
A report Commissioned from Transport & Mobility Leuven (TML) by the Flemish Institute for Scientific and Technological Assessment, ‘ViWTA’ which is linked to the Flemish Parliament, discusses the link between fine particles, cars, traffic and health. The report is to serve as input for a public consultation around the topic. A few key points from the report are that:
• fine particles diminish the life of Flemish people by three years.
• traffic is responsible for one third of fine particles emissions.
• if all European diesel cars were replaced by diesel cars with a particulate filter, Flemish air would contain 10% less fine particles.
• there is a growing importance of non-exhaust emissions from the wear and tear of roads, tyres and brakes.
Eurotunnel asks for Retrofit Emissions Systems for Shunting Locomotives
Eurotunnel has issued a tender notice for the installation of Exhaust Gas Emissions Control Systems on various railways locomotives to replace the current exhaust systems so as to meet European Stage IIIB/IV specifications. Eurotunnel is asking for tenders for systems for 9 Schöma CFL 200 and 3 Schöma CS 200 Diesel Shunters. All are powered by non-turbo 175kw Deutz F10L413FW engines. Current Emissions are stated to be up to 500ppm CO, up to 1200ppm NO and up to 200ppm NOx. The required emissions performance is to “meet, and be prepared to exceed with suitable modifications for 2012 legislation”, the European Stage IIIB / IV specifications for engines producing between 130KW and 1200KW output power up to 2010. The engines will be fuelled by ultra-low sulfur diesel to EN590. The new system must be installed on the locomotive in the space currently taken by the existing exhaust system and must not prevent or hinder driver visibility or access to other equipment. Any extra fuel or additive required for the emissions control “must not pose an environmental hazard, and it must be contained in an appropriate manner”. The system must operate automatically, with fail-safe shut-down in the event of malfunction, driver ON/OFF control and indicators. Finally, regular and periodic maintenance “must neither require excessive dismantling of the vehicle nor necessitate excessive down-time”.
Austrian Ambient Particulate Levels have already exceeded Annual Limits
Particulate matter emission records for the first 100 days of 2008 are looking very poor, according to an investigation by the Austrian Auto Club. The annual limit of 30 days, in which PM10 levels exceed 50μg/m³, has already been exceeded in Graz and Leibnitz. Emissions are also high in Klagenfurt, Innsbruck, Linz, Salzburg und Vienna. Since the beginning of the year, Graz has already had 41 days where the limit was exceeded.
Positive Initial Results from the London Low Emission Zone
Around one third of trucks over 12 tonnes operating in Greater London are significantly cleaner than they were one year ago, according to the first monitoring report from Transport for London (TfL) examining the impact of the Low Emission Zone.
The required emissions standard of the Low Emission Zone is the Euro III standard for particulate matter. The report shows that 96% of vehicles affected by the first phase of the scheme (trucks over 12 tonnes) are compliant with the emissions standard compared to 70% during 2007. A similar trend in compliance rates was observed in the build up to the second phase of the scheme on 7 July 2008 to include trucks over 3.5 tonnes, buses and coaches. Compliance rates currently stand at 91%.
The report says that the beneficial effect of the scheme is widespread, albeit generally at relatively modest absolute levels. No parts of Greater London are projected to experience an adverse net impact from the scheme. The scale of the benefit on PM10 concentrations increases in proximity both to central London and to individual major roads. The scheme therefore has the greatest impact where the air quality problems are most severe, and where the bulk of human exposure to poor air quality takes place.
TfL anticipates that the Low Emission Zone will reduce total road traffic-related emissions of PM10 by up to 6.6% in 2012, with beneficial effects on other pollutants such as NOx. TfL also expects the LEZ to reduce the area of Greater London with levels of PM10 that exceed the annual mean air quality objective by 5.8% in 2008 and by 14% by 2012. The area with excessive levels of NO2 levels should shrink by 5% in 2008 and by 20% by 2012.
Over a ten year period, projections suggest that people who would otherwise die prematurely as a result of poor air quality will gain additional life expectancy totalling 5000 years. Over the same period, lower levels of illness would mean a reduction of about 250 000 restricted activity days and more than 300 000 cases where respiratory symptoms are reduced in severity.
More info: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/roadusers/lez/LEZ-impacts-monitoring-baseline-report-2008-07-28.pdf
Swiss Campaigners may force Referendum on DPF Fitment and CO2
Swiss campaigners say they have achieved sufficient support to force a referendum on proposals force fitment of DPFs and set maximum CO2 limits.
EU 2007 Environmental Policy Review
The initiators, the Swiss Young Green party, want all new cars to emit less than 250g/km CO2 and diesel engines to be equipped with particle filters. In addition new cars should, the group says, weigh less than 2.2 tonnes and have a safer front in order to protect pedestrians. Cars which do not fit these criteria but are already registered should have a speed limit of 100km/h, they propose. The Young Green party says it has submitted 120 000 verified signatures to the Swiss Federal Chancellery, who will now check them to ensure the criterion of 100 000 valid signatures (necessary to call a referendum within 18 months) is met.
The European Commission has published its 2007 Environmental Policy Review as a Communication to the Council and Parliament COM(2008)409.
The report says that transport is one of the most difficult issues in the fight against climate change and other pollution. It notes that in 2007 the Commission proposed a legislative framework to achieve the 2012 target of 120g/km CO2 emissions for new cars whilst Euro 5 and 6 setting tighter limits on emissions of particles and nitrogen oxides were formally adopted by Council and Parliament. Euro 5 will, the report says, lead to the introduction of particle filters for diesel cars. The Commission also proposed the Euro VI heavy-duty standards and the proposed revision of the Fuel Quality Directive will cut sulfur levels and reduce pollutant emissions as well as the greenhouse gas intensity of fuels on a lifecycle basis.
The Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air, adopted in April 2008, will reduce exposure to small particles (PM2.5) in urban areas, it says. The report also notes that the Commission adopted a Green Paper on urban mobility and launched a public consultation on follow-up actions, which will be presented in an Action Plan on urban mobility in autumn 2008. In addition, it proposed a Directive to introduce environmental aspects into public procurement of vehicles. There is no sign of a reduction in energy consumption by transport as transport growth offsets efficiency gains due to technological vehicle development.
The document discusses incentive and taxation plans in various countries, including Germany’s environmental labelling scheme. It notes that the Flemish government has plans to introduce a “smart” kilometre levy for trucks that could be related to distance travelled, place, time and environmental characteristics of the vehicle. In 2008 the Benelux governments will discuss the different ways of doing this in a Benelux context. Another note records that Slovakia will, in 2009, introduce a tax based on distance driven, while taking into account the environmental performance of the vehicle and the number of axles.
More info: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/pdf/illust_epr.pdf
Netherlands increases Budget for Cleaner Vehicle Incentives
Beginning of September 2008 the Netherlands published details of increased budgets for two schemes to incentivize cleaner vehicles.
Denmark delays Air Quality Targets
For commercial vehicles, the budget for the scheme to incentivize the purchase of Euro V and EEV trucks is increased by €7 million to €44 million. VROM, the Dutch Environment Ministry, says that in the past year the purchase of trucks and buses that meet these requirements greatly increased, partly as a result of the subsidies. The subsidy has been extended since it is important for the improvement of air quality that this trend continues. Truck and bus owners with a Euro III engines with a capacity below 225kW can still get grants for the installation of a particulate filter so that their vehicle meets the requirement of the environmental zones.
VROM also says that the number of new taxis and vans fitted with original-equipment particulate filters is constantly increasing. In order to continue to encourage purchase of new vehicles with particulate filters, the budget of the system has been increased by €3 million to €16 million.
Denmark will not be able to meet the EU's demands regarding reductions of particle emissions and has decided to ask for more time. New regulations regarding emissions of particles such as NO2 come into effect in 2010 but Denmark will ask for a respite until 2015 according to Minister for the Environment Troels Lund Poulsen.
Irish EPA warns of Rise in NO2 Levels
It will be the first time that Denmark will have to ask for a respite in meeting the EU’s environmental requirements. In June, the Environment Ministry had published a new strategy on how Denmark can clean up its air, specifying that threshold values for air quality must be maintained.
On 17 September, the Irish Times reported on a report ‘Air Quality in Ireland 2007’, compiled by EPA researcher Barbara O’Lear. The report shows that all monitoring stations throughout the State met EU standards. However levels of PM10 were relatively high in smaller towns due to traffic and continued use of bituminous coal. Pollution from NO2 and fine dust particles could rise in Ireland’s urban areas with further increases in traffic, according to the EPA air quality report. The release of the report was timed to coincide with European Mobility Week as this year’s theme is “Clean Air for All”.
Swiss Federal Council approves new Ordinance on Air Quality
EPA program manager Dr Ciarán O’Donnell said: “What our results for 2007 show is that there is a strong link between air quality and local emissions. Traffic and smoky fuel are the two main causes of poor air quality in Ireland.” Given high levels of traffic in Dublin and other cities and the continued burning of bituminous coal in areas where its sale is not banned, he said the public should “consider the environmental effects of their choice of domestic fuel and mode of transport”.
NO2 levels were highest in the most urbanized areas, mainly due to traffic density. Particulates were highest in cities and smaller towns, probably due to traffic density in cities and use of non-smokeless fuel in smaller towns.
The Federal Council in Switzerland has approved the amendments to the ordinance on air quality that set the requirements to ensure that construction equipment is fitted with DPFs. The revised Ordinance follows from the consultation initiated last year. A total of 102 responses were received, of which 26 were from Cantons, 14 from environmental protection and public health organizations and 41 from economic and professional associations. The Swiss Environment Ministry (BAFU/OFEV) says that the proposal was generally well received by the Cantons except that both they and the environmental organizations criticized the lack of retrofit requirements for machines of 18 to 37kW. BAFU says that the previous requirements covered only larger sites and were not implemented uniformly by all Cantons. The new Ordinance does not specify that DPFs must be fitted, but sets a particle number limit of 1x1012 particles/kWh for machines and equipment from 18kW. The particle number limit applies to the NRSC and NRTC test procedures. No specific method is defined for particle number measurement, but particles are defined as solid particles with a diameter greater than 23nm. Engines must also meet the requirements of the EU’s NRMM Directive (97/68/EC) applicable to their year of manufacture.
The amendment applies to all new machines of 37kW or more on construction sites from 1 January 2009. The requirements apply to new machines of 18 to 37kW from 1 January 2010. Existing machines of 37kW or over built between 2000 and 2008 must meet the requirements from 1 May 2010. Older machines are exempt until 1 May 2015 and there are no retrofit requirements for engines below 37kW. The particle number requirements for existing machines are deemed to be met by fitting a particulate filter system included on the Swiss OFEV/Suva list. Such DPFs must: retain 97% of 20 to 300nm particles when new and after 1000hours continuous use; retain 90% of solid particles during regeneration; operate without additives containing copper or catalytic coatings based on copper; limit secondary emissions to the extent allowed by the state of the art and operating conditions; be fitted with electronic pressure monitoring; not exceed 0.15m-1 opacity coefficient; be manufactured so that it is impossible to install it in the opposite direction to the direction of flow; be provided with instructions for cleaning and maintenance.
The measurement methods are in accordance with Swiss rule SNR 277205. The Ordinance also includes marking requirements and fuel specifications.
More info: http://www.bafu.admin.ch/aktuell/medieninformation/00004/index.html?lang=de&msg-id=21560
NL Subsidy Regulations for DPFs and cleaner Engines
The Dutch Environment Ministry (VROM) has announced that it plans to extend its entire subsidy package for particulate filters and cleaner engines for one year until 31 December 2009.
The VROM says that in 2008, some 145 000 vehicle owners have benefited from €66 million in subsidies for the purchase of a particulate filter or a truck with a cleaner engine. In the past year, the sales of trucks and buses complying with Euro V or EEV have greatly increased.
There has also been an increase in the supply of new vans with original-equipment particulate filters. For the improvement of air quality it is important that these trends continue in the coming year. Therefore, the Netherlands has decided to continue to financially support the installation of particulate filters and the purchase of cleaner engines. For 2009 the available budgets are as follows:
- passenger cars with retrofit particulate filter (SRP) €11,8 million
- trucks with retrofit particulate filter (SRV) €14,8 million
- particulate filters on mobile machinery (SRMW) €6 million
- new trucks and buses with Euro V/EEV engine €9 million
- new taxis and vans with particulate filter (STB) €18 million
At present VROM is evaluating the implementation of the passenger car and commercial vehicle subsidy regulations (SRP- and SRV respectively*). The results of these evaluations could lead to an adaptation of the regulations.
* Subsidieregeling Retrofit Personenwagens en lichte bestelauto's and Subsidieprogramma Retrofit Vrachtwagens en Bussen.